Optimizing Multi-Terminal Customized Bus Service with Mixed Fleet

Qian Sun, Steven Chien, Dawei Hu, Gang Chen, Rui Sen Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


The customized bus (CB) transit is recognized as an effective transportation mode offering more flexible and demand-responsive service than traditional bus transit with fixed route and schedule, especially during the peak hours. The novelty of this study is the development of a mixed integer non-linear model for optimizing multi-terminal CB service in an urban setting. According to the estimated spatiotemporal passenger demand, the objective total cost, consisting of supplier's and users' costs, is minimized subject to capacity and time window constraints. A mixed bus fleet with various bus sizes is employed to accommodate passenger demand, which increases vehicle utilization and reduces supplier's cost. The inconvenience of passengers caused by early arrival at the destination is treated as penalty and considered in users' cost. The study optimization problem is combinatorial with many decision variables including trip assignment, bus routing and associated timetables, and fleet size. A hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) which integrates the features of genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) is developed to effectively search for the optimal solution. A real-world CB network is employed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed model and explore the relation between the model parameters and optimized results. It was found that the total cost can be reduced by 16.5% after employing multiple terminals and a mixed bus fleet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9174721
Pages (from-to)156456-156469
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


  • Customized bus
  • cost
  • demand-responsive transit
  • genetic algorithm
  • routing
  • scheduling
  • simulated annealing
  • trip assignment


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