Oxo-M and 4-PPBP Delivery via Multi-Domain Peptide Hydrogel Toward Tendon Regeneration

Ga Young Park, Solaiman Tarafder, Samantha Lewis Eyen, Soomin Park, Ryunhyung Kim, Zain Siddiqui, Vivek Kumar, Chang H. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We have recently identified novel small molecules, Oxo-M and 4-PPBP, which specifically stimulate endogenous tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs), leading to potential regenerative healing of fully transected tendons. Here, we investigated an injectable, multidomain peptide (MDP) hydrogel providing controlled delivery of the small molecules for regenerative tendon healing. We investigated the release kinetics of Oxo-M and 4-PPBP from MDP hydrogels and the effect of MDP-released small molecules on tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and in vivo tendon healing. In vitro, MDP showed a sustained release of Oxo-M and 4-PPBP and a slower degradation than fibrin. In addition, tenogenic gene expression was significantly increased in TSC with MDP-released Oxo-M and 4-PPBP as compared to the fibrin-released. In vivo, MDP releasing Oxo-M and 4-PPBP significantly improved tendon healing, likely associated with prolonged effects of Oxo-M and 4-PPBP on suppression of M1 macrophages and promotion of M2 macrophages. Comprehensive analyses including histomorphology, digital image processing, and modulus mapping with nanoindentation consistently suggested that Oxo-M and 4-PPBP delivered via MDP further improved tendon healing as compared to fibrin-based delivery. In conclusion, MDP delivered with Oxo-M and 4-PPBP may serve as an efficient regenerative therapeutic for in situ tendon regeneration and healing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number773004
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
StatePublished - Jan 27 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Histology
  • Biomedical Engineering


  • controlled delivery
  • multi-domain peptide
  • small molecules
  • tendon regeneration
  • tendon stem/progenitor cells


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