Pairwise prediction-error expansion for efficient reversible data hiding

Bo Ou, Xiaolong Li, Yao Zhao, Rongrong Ni, Yun Qing Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

470 Scopus citations


In prediction-error expansion (PEE) based reversible data hiding, better exploiting image redundancy usually leads to a superior performance. However, the correlations among prediction-errors are not considered and utilized in current PEE based methods. Specifically, in PEE, the prediction-errors are modified individually in data embedding. In this paper, to better exploit these correlations, instead of utilizing prediction-errors individually, we propose to consider every two adjacent prediction-errors jointly to generate a sequence consisting of prediction-error pairs. Then, based on the sequence and the resulting 2D prediction-error histogram, a more efficient embedding strategy, namely, pairwise PEE, can be designed to achieve an improved performance. The superiority of our method is verified through extensive experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6595594
Pages (from-to)5010-5021
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


  • 2D prediction-error histogram (2d peh)
  • Pairwise prediction-error expansion (pairwise pee)
  • Reversible data hiding (rdh)


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