Partial purification from hot dogs of N-nitroso compound precursors and their mutagenicity after nitrosation

Lin Zhou, James Haorah, Fulvio Perini, Steven G. Carmella, Takayuki Shibamoto, Sidney S. Mirvish

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14 Scopus citations


Hot dogs contain apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) and ANC precursors (ANCP). ANCP purification was followed by nitrosation, sulfamic acid treatment, and analysis for ANC. Aqueous hot dog extracts were adsorbed on silica gel, which was eluted with MeCN and MeOH. The MeOH eluate was adsorbed on cation exchange resin (H+ form) and eluted with NH4OH. Eluted ANCP traveled at moderate speeds in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on amino and Pb2+ columns. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of crude water extract indicated the presence of glycerol, phosphate, lactic acid, and two monosaccharides. GC-MS of TMS derivatives of Pb2+ column HPLC eluates indicated that ANCP included 1-deoxy-N-1-glucosyl glycine. The nitrosated NH4OH eluate showed 4x background mutagenic activity for Salmonella typhimurium TA-100. Un-nitrosated fractions showed 2x background activity. Although tryptophan nitrosation gave 88% ANC yield, tryptophan is probably not a major ANCP in hot dogs. Hot dog patties prepared with or without sucrose or glucose showed similar ANC and ANCP levels. We discuss possible implications of these findings for the etiology of colon cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5679-5687
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number15
StatePublished - Jul 26 2006
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


  • Hot dog
  • Mutagenicity
  • Nitrite


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