Patch-level Routing in Mixture-of-Experts is Provably Sample-efficient for Convolutional Neural Networks

Mohammed Nowaz Rabbani Chowdhury, Shuai Zhang, Meng Wang, Sijia Liu, Pin Yu Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


In deep learning, mixture-of-experts (MoE) activates one or few experts (sub-networks) on a per-sample or per-token basis, resulting in significant computation reduction. The recently proposed patch-level routing in MoE (pMoE) divides each input into n patches (or tokens) and sends l patches (l ≪ n) to each expert through prioritized routing. pMoE has demonstrated great empirical success in reducing training and inference costs while maintaining test accuracy. However, the theoretical explanation of pMoE and the general MoE remains elusive. Focusing on a supervised classification task using a mixture of two-layer convolutional neural networks (CNNs), we show for the first time that pMoE provably reduces the required number of training samples to achieve desirable generalization (referred to as the sample complexity) by a factor in the polynomial order of n/l, and outperforms its single-expert counterpart of the same or even larger capacity. The advantage results from the discriminative routing property, which is justified in both theory and practice that pMoE routers can filter label-irrelevant patches and route similar class-discriminative patches to the same expert. Our experimental results on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and CelebA support our theoretical findings on pMoE's generalization and show that pMoE can avoid learning spurious correlations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6074-6114
Number of pages41
JournalProceedings of Machine Learning Research
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes
Event40th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2023 - Honolulu, United States
Duration: Jul 23 2023Jul 29 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Statistics and Probability


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