People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places: The P3 framework for location-based community systems

Quentin Jones, Sukeshini A. Grandhi, Loren Terveen, Steve Whittaker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


In this paper we examine an emerging class of systems that link People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places; we call these P3-Systems. Through analyzing the literature, we have identified four major P3-System design techniques: People-Centered systems that use either absolute user location (e.g. Active Badge) or user proximity (e.g. Hocman) and Place-Centered systems based on either a representation of people's use of physical spaces (e.g. Active Map) or on a matching virtual space that enables online interaction linked to physical location (e.g. Geonotes). In addition, each feature can be instantiated synchronously or asynchronously. The P3-System framework organizes existing systems into meaningful categories and structures the design space for an interesting new class of potentially context-aware systems. Our discussion of the framework suggests new ways of understanding and addressing the privacy concerns associated with location aware community system and outlines additional socio-technical challenges and opportunities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-282
Number of pages34
JournalComputer Supported Cooperative Work: CSCW: An International Journal
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Aug 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science


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