Phase balancing is essential to safe power system operation. We consider a substation connected to multiple phases, each with single-phase loads, generation, and energy storage. A representative of the substation operates the system and aims to minimize the cost of all phases and to balance loads among phases. We first consider ideal energy storage with lossless charging and discharging, and propose both centralized and distributed real-time algorithms taking into account system uncertainty. The proposed algorithm does not require any system statistics and asymptotically achieves the minimum system cost with large energy storage. We then extend the algorithm to accommodate more realistic non-ideal energy storage that has imperfect charging and discharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated through extensive simulation and compared with that of a benchmark greedy algorithm. Simulation shows that our algorithm leads to strong performance over a wide range of storage characteristics.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Distributed algorithm
- energy storage
- phase balancing
- stochastic optimization