Power system inertia estimation: Review of methods and the impacts of converter-interfaced generations

Bendong Tan, Junbo Zhao, Marcos Netto, Venkat Krishnan, Vladimir Terzija, Yingchen Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Understanding and quantifying the inertia of power systems with the integration of converter-interfaced generation (CIG) plays an essential role in the safe transition to a future low-inertia scenario. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of inertia definitions for both synchronous generators and CIGs as well as their corresponding estimation methods. In particular, the estimation methods are categorized as model-based and measurement-based approaches considering both small and large disturbances. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods are carefully discussed. This paper also offers for the first time a framework to quantify the virtual inertia of CIGs at the component and aggregation levels, an open problem in the literature. Finally, future directions for inertia estimation are identified and discussed. This significantly benefits the design of appropriate control and protection schemes in achieving a more reliable, secure, and resilient power system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107362
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
StatePublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Converter interfaced generations
  • Frequency stability
  • Inertia estimation
  • Low-inertia system
  • Power system stability
  • Synchronous generators
  • Virtual inertia emulation


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