Poynting vector and the quality of electric energy

Z. Cakareski, A. E. Emanuel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


This paper expounds on electric energy quality issues using the Poynting Vector (PV). It is shown that components that do not contribute to a net energy transfer, are attributed to the nonactive components of the PV that are associated with three situations: 1. Phase displacement, 2. Current harmonics injection, 3. Load unbalance. The nonactive PV components can be viewed as carriers of polluting energy that negatively affects the energy transfer process and its conversion at the end-user. The developed analysis helps visualize the flow of electric energy in poly-phase systems and provides a theoretical base for the resolution of apparent power for three-phase systems with nonlinear and unbalanced loads.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-381
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Transactions on Electrical Power
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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