Preclinical pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a novel meglumine-based parenteral solution of topiramate and topiramate combinations for treatment of status epilepticus

Chris Rundfeldt, Pavel Klein, Detlev Boison, Alexander Rotenberg, Raimondo D'Ambrosio, Cliff Eastman, Benton Purnell, Madhuvika Murugan, Howard P. Goodkin, Wolfgang Löscher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: For an antiseizure medication (ASM) to be effective in status epilepticus (SE), the drug should be administered intravenously (i.v.) to provide quick access to the brain. However, poor aqueous solubility is a major problem in the development of parenteral drug solutions. Given its multiple mechanisms of action, topiramate (TPM) is a promising candidate for the treatment of established or refractory SE, as supported by clinical studies using nasogastric tube TPM administration. However, TPM is not clinically available as a solution for i.v. administration, which hampers its use in the treatment of SE. Here, we describe a novel easy-to-use and easy-to-prepare i.v. TPM formulation using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved excipient meglumine. Methods: During formulation development, we compared the solubility of TPM in bi-distilled water with vs without a range of meglumine concentrations. Furthermore, the solubility of combinations of TPM and levetiracetam and TPM, levetiracetam, and atorvastatin in aqueous meglumine concentrations was determined. Subsequently, the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of meglumine-based solutions of TPM and TPM combinations were evaluated in rats, including animals following fluid percussion injury or pilocarpine-induced SE. Results: The amino sugar meglumine markedly enhances the aqueous solubility of TPM. A comparison with data on dissolving TPM using sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (Captisol) demonstrates that meglumine is much more effective for dissolving TPM. Furthermore, meglumine can be used to prepare drug cocktails where TPM is co-administered with another ASM for SE treatment. The tolerability studies of the meglumine-based TPM solution and meglumine-based TPM combinations in normal rats and the rat fluid percussion injury and pilocarpine-induced SE models demonstrate excellent tolerability of the novel drug solutions. Preclinical studies on antiseizure efficacy in the SE model are underway. Significance: In conclusion, the novel meglumine-based solution of TPM presented here may be well suited for clinical development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)888-899
Number of pages12
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


  • atorvastatin
  • benzodiazepines
  • cyclodextrins
  • levetiracetam
  • status epilepticus


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