Prompt Tuning Pushes Farther, Contrastive Learning Pulls Closer: A Two-Stage Approach to Mitigate Social Biases

Yingji Li, Mengnan Du, Xin Wang, Ying Wang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

As the representation capability of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) improve, there is growing concern that they will inherit social biases from unprocessed corpora. Most previous debiasing techniques used Counterfactual Data Augmentation (CDA) to balance the training corpus. However, CDA slightly modifies the original corpus, limiting the representation distance between different demographic groups to a narrow range. As a result, the debiasing model easily fits the differences between counterfactual pairs, which affects its debiasing performance with limited text resources. In this paper, we propose an adversarial training-inspired two-stage debiasing model using Contrastive learning with Continuous Prompt Augmentation (named CCPA) to mitigate social biases in PLMs' encoding. In the first stage, we propose a data augmentation method based on continuous prompt tuning to push farther the representation distance between sample pairs along different demographic groups. In the second stage, we utilize contrastive learning to pull closer the representation distance between the augmented sample pairs and then fine-tune PLMs' parameters to get debiased encoding. Our approach guides the model to achieve stronger debiasing performance by adding difficulty to the training process. Extensive experiments show that CCPA outperforms baselines in terms of debiasing performance. Meanwhile, experimental results on the GLUE benchmark show that CCPA retains the language modeling capability of PLMs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLong Papers
PublisherAssociation for Computational Linguistics (ACL)
Pages14254-14267
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781959429722
StatePublished - 2023
Event61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, ACL 2023 - Toronto, Canada
Duration: Jul 9 2023Jul 14 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Volume1
ISSN (Print)0736-587X

Conference

Conference61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, ACL 2023
Country/TerritoryCanada
CityToronto
Period7/9/237/14/23

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Language and Linguistics

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