## Abstract

History dependence of the evolution of complex systems plays an important role in forecasting.The precision of the predictions declines as the memory of the systems is lost. We propose a simplemethod for assessing the rate of memory loss that can be applied to experimental data observed in any metric space X. This rate indicates how fast the future states become independent of the initialcondition. Under certain regularity conditions on the invariant measure of the dynamical system, weprove that our method provides an upper bound on the mixing rate of the system. This rate can be used to infer the longest time scale on which the predictions are still meaningful. We employ our method to analyze the memory loss of a slowly sheared granular system with a small inertial number I. We show that, even if I is kept fixed, the rate of memory loss depends erratically on the shear rate. Our study suggests the presence of bifurcations at which the rate of memory loss increases with the shear rate, while it decreases away from these points. We also find that the rate of memory loss is closely related to the frequency of the sudden transitions of the force network. Moreover, therate of memory loss is also well correlated with the loss of correlation of shear stress measured at the system scale. Thus, we have established a direct link between the evolution of force networksand the macroscopic properties of the considered system.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 033126 |

Journal | Chaos |

Volume | 31 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Mar 1 2021 |

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Applied Mathematics