Rapid freezing prototyping with water

Wei Zhang, Ming C. Leu, Zhiming Ji, Yongnian Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Rapid Freezing Prototyping (RFP) with water is a novel solid freedom fabrication technique that can generate three-dimensional ice objects by depositing and rapidly freezing water layer by layer. It provides a means to build a solid part (ice part) with the potential of better performance than other solid freeform fabrication techniques in many aspects. The support, where necessary, is made of brine whose freezing point is lower than pure water. After building the part, the support can be removed by utilizing the melting temperature difference between brine and water. Preliminary experiments have shown that the ice patterns can be used for design visualization and silicone molding. This paper will present the concept and some experimental results of the RFP process as well as its potential applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-145
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials and Design
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


  • Extrusion
  • Forming
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Rapid solidification
  • Solid freeform fabrication


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