In semiconductor manufacturing, when a wafer is processed, it requires unloading from its process module in a given time interval, otherwise it is scraped. This requirement is called wafer residency time constraints. Thus, it is crucial to schedule a cluster tool such that the wafer sojourn time in a process module is within a given time window to satisfy the wafer residency time constraints. Besides wafer residency time constraints, in a cluster tool, the activity time is subject to variation. The activity time variation can make a feasible schedule obtained under the assumption of deterministic activity times become infeasible. To solve this problem, it is important to reveal the wafer sojourn time fluctuations with bounded activity time variation. Such an issue is addressed in this chapter for single-arm cluster tools. A single-arm cluster tool is modeled by a resource-oriented Petri net to describe the wafer fabrication processes. Based on it, a real-time control policy is proposed such that it offsets the effect of the activity time variation as much as possible. Then, the wafer sojourn time delay in a process module is analyzed and analytical expressions are derived to calculate the upper bound. With the help of the real-time control policy and wafer sojourn time delay analysis results, schedulability conditions and scheduling algorithms for an off-line schedule are presented in this chapter. The schedulability conditions can be analytically checked. If schedulable, an off-line schedule can be analytically found. The off-line schedule together with the real-time control policy forms the real-time schedule for the system. It is optimal in terms of cycle time minimization. Examples are given to show the application of the proposed approach.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Formal Methods in Manufacturing Systems|
|Subtitle of host publication||Recent Advances|
|Number of pages||33|
|ISBN (Print)||1466640340, 9781466640344|
|State||Published - May 31 2013|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes