Growing concerns over the risk of accidental releases of oil into the marine environment have emphasized our need to improve both oil spill preparedness and response strategies. Among the available spill response options, dispersants offer the advantages of breaking oil slicks into small oil droplets and promoting their dilution, dissolution, and biodegradation within the water column. Thus dispersants can reduce the probability of oil slicks at sea from reaching coastal regions and reduce their direct impact on mammals, sea birds and shoreline ecosystems. To facilitate marine oil spill response operations, especially addressing spill incidents in remote/Arctic offshore regions, an in-depth understanding of the transportation, fate and effects of naturally/chemically dispersed oil is of great importance. This review provides a synthesis of recent research results studies related to the application of dispersants at the surface and in the deep sea, the fate and transportation of naturally and chemically dispersed oil, and dispersant application in the Arctic and ice-covered waters.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Arctic and ice-infested water
- Marine oil spill