Recent State and Challenges in Spectroelectrochemistry with Its Applications in Microfluidics

Zhenglong Li, Charmi Chande, Yu Hsuan Cheng, Sagnik Basuray

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This review paper presents the recent developments in spectroelectrochemical (SEC) technologies. The coupling of spectroscopy and electrochemistry enables SEC to do a detailed and comprehensive study of the electron transfer kinetics and vibrational spectroscopic fingerprint of analytes during electrochemical reactions. Though SEC is a promising technique, the usage of SEC techniques is still limited. Therefore, enough publicity for SEC is required, considering the promising potential in the analysis fields. Unlike previously published review papers primarily focused on the relatively frequently used SEC techniques (ultraviolet-visible SEC and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SEC), the two not-frequently used but promising techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance SEC and dark-field microscopy SEC) have also been studied in detail. This review paper not only focuses on the applications of each SEC method but also details their primary working mechanism. In short, this paper summarizes each SEC technique’s working principles, current applications, challenges encountered, and future development directions. In addition, each SEC technique’s applicative research directions are detailed and compared in this review work. Furthermore, integrating SEC techniques into microfluidics is becoming a trend in minimized analysis devices. Therefore, the usage of SEC techniques in microfluidics is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number667
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • dark-field microscopy SEC
  • microfluidics
  • nuclear magnetic resonance SEC
  • spectroelectrochemistry
  • surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SEC
  • ultraviolet-visible SEC


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