Skeletal muscle injuries that occur from traumatic incidents, such as those caused by car accidents or surgical resections, or from injuries sustained on the battlefield, result in the loss of functionality of the injured muscle. To understand skeletal muscle regeneration and to better treat these large scale injuries, termed volumetric muscle loss (VML), in vivo injury models exploring the innate mechanisms of muscle injury and repair are essential for the creation of clinically applicable treatments. While the end result of a muscle injury is often the destruction of muscle tissue, the manner in which these injuries are induced as well as the response from the innate repair mechanisms found in muscle in each animal models can vary. This targeted review describes injury models that assess both skeletal muscle regeneration (i.e., the response of muscle to myotoxin or ischemic injury) and skeletal muscle repair (i.e., VML injury). We aimed to summarize the injury models used in the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, paying particular attention to strategies to induce muscle damage and how to standardize injury conditions for future experiments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Animal models
- Skeletal muscle regeneration
- Tissue engineering
- Volumetric muscle loss