Revealing the Evolution of Non-thermal Electrons in Solar Flares Using 3D Modeling

Gregory Fleishman, Gelu Nita, Natsuha Kuroda, Sabina Jia, Kevin Tong, Richard R. Wen, Zhou Zhizhuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Understanding non-thermal particle generation, transport, and escape in solar flares requires detailed quantification of the particle evolution in the realistic 3D domain where the flare takes place. Rather surprisingly, apart from the standard flare scenario and integral characteristics of non-thermal electrons, not much is known about the actual evolution of non-thermal electrons in the 3D spatial domain. This paper attempts to begin to remedy this situation by creating sets of evolving 3D models, the synthesized emission from which matches the evolving observed emission. Here, we investigate two contrasting flares: a dense, "coronal-thick-target" flare SOL2002-04-12T17:42, that contained a single flare loop observed in both microwaves and X-rays, and a more complex flare, SOL2015-06-22T17:50, that contained at least four distinct flaring loops needed to consistently reproduce the microwave and X-ray emission. Our analysis reveals differing evolution patterns for the non-thermal electrons in the dense and tenuous loops; however, both patterns suggest that resonant wave-particle interactions with turbulence play a central role. These results offer new constraints for theory and models of the particle acceleration and transport in solar flares.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number17
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 20 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Sun: flares
  • Sun: magnetic fields
  • Sun: radio radiation
  • acceleration of particles
  • diffusion
  • turbulence


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