Revealing the traces of median filtering using high-order local ternary patterns

Yujin Zhang, Shenghong Li, Shilin Wang, Yun Qing Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations


Recently, detecting the traces introduced by the content-preserving image manipulations has received a great deal of attention from forensic analyzers. It is well known that the median filter is a widely used nonlinear denoising operator. Therefore, the detection of median filtering is of important realistic significance in image forensics. In this letter, a novel local texture operator, named the second-order local ternary pattern (LTP), is proposed for median filtering detection. The proposed local texture operator encodes the local derivative direction variations by using a 3-valued coding function and is capable of effectively capturing the changes of local texture caused by median filtering. In addition, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) is exploited to reduce the dimensionality of the proposed feature set, making the computational cost manageable. The experiment results have shown that the proposed scheme performs better than several state-of-the-art approaches investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6693700
Pages (from-to)275-280
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Signal Processing Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Digital image forensics
  • high-order local ternary patterns (LTP)
  • median filtering


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