Reversible data hiding: Advances in the past two decades

Yun Qing Shi, Xiaolong Li, Xinpeng Zhang, Hao Tian Wu, Bin Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

496 Scopus citations


In the past two decades, reversible data hiding (RDH), also referred to as lossless or invertible data hiding, has gradually become a very active research area in the field of data hiding. This has been verified by more and more papers on increasingly wide-spread subjects in the field of RDH research that have been published these days. In this paper, the various RDH algorithms and researches have been classified into the following six categories: 1) RDH into image spatial domain; 2) RDH into image compressed domain (e.g., JPEG); 3) RDH suitable for image semi-fragile authentication; 4) RDH with image contrast enhancement; 5) RDH into encrypted images, which is expected to have wide application in the cloud computation; and 6) RDH into video and into audio. For each of these six categories, the history of technical developments, the current state of the arts, and the possible future researches are presented and discussed. It is expected that the RDH technology and its applications in the real word will continue to move ahead.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7479451
Pages (from-to)3210-3237
Number of pages28
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


  • Reversible data hiding
  • audio reversible data hiding
  • difference expansion
  • histogram shifting
  • invertible data hiding
  • lossless data hiding
  • prediction-error
  • robust reversible data hiding
  • sorting
  • video reversible data hiding


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