Reversible watermarking algorithm using sorting and prediction

Vasiliy Sachnev, Hyoung Joong Kim, Jeho Nam, Sundaram Suresh, Yun Qing Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

784 Scopus citations


This paper presents a reversible or lossless water-marking algorithm for images without using a location map in most cases. This algorithm employs prediction errors to embed data into an image. A sorting technique is used to record the prediction errors based on magnitude of its local variance. Using sorted prediction errors and, if needed, though rarely, a reduced size location map allows us to embed more data into the image with less distortion. The performance of the proposed reversible watermarking scheme is evaluated using different images and compared with four methods: those of Kamstra and Heijmans, Thodi and Rodriguez, and Lee et al. The results clearly indicate that the proposed scheme can embed more data with less distortion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4811982
Pages (from-to)989-999
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Media Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Lossless data hiding
  • Prediction error expansion
  • Reversible watermarking


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