Reversible watermarking with adaptive embedding threshold matrix

Guangyong Gao, Yun Qing Shi, Xingming Sun, Caixue Zhou, Zongmin Cui, Liya Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this paper, a new reversible watermarking algorithm with adaptive embedding threshold matrix is proposed. Firstly, to avoid the overflow and underflow, two flexible thresholds, TL and TR, are applied to preprocess the image histogram with least histogram shift cost. Secondly, for achieving an optimal or near optimal tradeoff between the embedding capacity and imperceptibility, the embedding threshold matrix, composed of the embedding thresholds of all blocks, is determined adaptively by the combination between the composite chaos and the average energy of Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) block. As a non-liner system with good randomness, the composite chaos is suitable to search the optimal embedding thresholds. Meanwhile, the average energy of IWT block is calculated to adjust the block embedding capacity, and more data are embedded into those IWT blocks with larger average energy. The experimental results demonstrate that compared with the state-of-the-art reversible watermarking schemes, the proposed scheme has better performance for the tradeoff between the embedding capacity and imperceptibility.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4603-4624
Number of pages22
JournalKSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 30 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Networks and Communications


  • Average block energy
  • Composite chaos
  • Embedding threshold matrix
  • Reversible watermarking


Dive into the research topics of 'Reversible watermarking with adaptive embedding threshold matrix'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this