Rich media streaming for just-in-time training of first responders

Cesar Bandera, Michael Marsico

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The diversity of first responders and of asymmetric threats precludes the effectiveness of any single training syllabus. Just-in-time training (JITT) addresses this variability, but requires training content to be quickly tailored to the subject (the threat), the learner (the responder), and the infrastructure (the C2 chain from DHS to the responder's equipment). We present a distributed system for personalized just-in-time training of first responders. The authoring and delivery of interactive rich media and simulations, and the integration of JITT with C2 centers, are demonstrated. Live and archived video, imagery, 2-D and 3-D models, and simulations are autonomously (1) aggregated from object-oriented databases into SCORM-compliant objects, (2) tailored to the individual learner's training history, preferences, connectivity and computing platform (from workstations to wireless PDAs), (3) conveyed as secure and reliable MPEG-4 compliant streams with data rights management, and (4) rendered as interactive high-definition rich media that promotes knowledge retention and the refinement of learner skills without the need of special hardware. We review the object-oriented implications of SCORM and the higher level profiles of the MPEG-4 standard, and show how JITT can be integrated into - and improve the ROI of - existing training infrastructures, including COTS content authoring tools, LMS/CMS, man-in-the-loop simulators, and legacy content. Lastly, we compare the audiovisual quality of different streaming platforms under varying connectivity conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number15
Pages (from-to)71-80
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Issue numberPART I
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes
EventSensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defence IV - Orlando, FL, United States
Duration: Mar 28 2005Apr 1 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • MPEG-4
  • Multimedia
  • Responders
  • Simulation
  • Streaming
  • Training
  • Wireless


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