Robust and efficient stream delivery for application layer multicasting in heterogeneous networks

Masahiro Kobayashi, Hidehisa Nakayama, Nirwan Ansari, Nei Kato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Application layer multicast (ALM) is highly expected to replace IP multicasting as the new technological choice for content delivery. Depending on the streaming application, ALM nodes will construct a multicast tree and deliver the stream through this tree. However, if a node resides in the tree leaves, it cannot deliver the stream to its descendant nodes. In this case, quality of service (QoS) will be compromised dramatically. To overcome this problem, topology-aware hierarchical arrangement graph (THAG) was proposed. By employing multiple description coding (MDC), THAG first splits the stream into a number of descriptions, and then uses arrangement graph (AG) to construct node-disjoint multicast trees for each description. However, using a constant AG size in THAG creates difficulty in delivering descriptions appropriately across a heterogeneous network. In this paper, we propose a method, referred to as network-aware hierarchical arrangement graph (NHAG), to change the AG size dynamically to enhance THAG performance, even in heterogeneous networks. Finally, we evaluate the proposed scheme by experiments using the network simulator ns-2. By comparing our proposed method to THAG and SplitStream, we show that our method provides better performance in terms of throughput and QoS. The results indicate that our approach is more reliable than other methods in heterogeneous networks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4717209
Pages (from-to)166-176
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Media Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Application layer multicast
  • content delivery
  • multiple description coding
  • streaming contents


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