Robust multibit image watermarking based on contrast modulation and affine rectification

Xin Zhong, Frank Y. Shih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In this paper, we present a robust multibit image watermarking scheme to undertake the common image-processing attacks as well as affine distortions. This scheme combines contrast modulation and effective synchronization for large payload and high robustness. We analyze the robustness, payload, and the lower bound of fidelity. Regarding watermark resynchronization under affine distortions, we develop a self-referencing rectification method to detect the distortion parameters for reconstruction by the center of mass in affine covariant regions. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed scheme are confirmed by experimental results, which show the superior performance as comparing against several state-of-the-art watermarking methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1954036
JournalInternational Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence
Issue number14
StatePublished - Dec 31 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Artificial Intelligence


  • Affine transform
  • Contrast modulation
  • Image rectification
  • Image watermarking
  • Robustness


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