Pancreatic cancer has a notoriously poor prognosis, exhibits persistent drug resistance, and lacks a cure. Unique features of the pancreatic tumor microenvironment exacerbate tumorigenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Recent studies emphasize the importance of exploiting cells in the tumor microenvironment to thwart cancers. In this review, we summarize the hallmarks of the multifaceted pancreatic tumor microenvironment, notably pancreatic stellate cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts, macrophages, and neutrophils, in the regulation of chemo-, radio-, immuno-, and targeted therapy resistance in pancreatic cancer. The molecular insight will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics against pancreatic cancer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- pancreatic cancer
- therapy resistance
- tumor microenvironment