Scheduling hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks with nonzero laser tuning time

Jingjing Zhang, Nirwan Ansari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Owing to the high bandwidth provisioning, hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) passive optical network (PON) is becoming an attractive future-proof access network solution. In hybrid WDM/TDM PON, tunable lasers are potential candidate light sources attributed to their multiwavelength provisioning capability and color-free property. Currently, the laser tuning time ranges from a few tens of nanoseconds to seconds, or even minutes, depending on the adopted technology. Different laser tuning time may introduce different network performance. To achieve small packet delay and ensure fairness, the schedule length for given optical network unit (ONU) requests is desired to be as short as possible. This paper illustrates contributions in four main aspects. First, we show that both preemptive and nonpreemptive scheduling problems with the objective of minimizing the schedule length are NP-hard when the laser tuning time is nonzero. Second, we present a heuristic preemptive scheduling algorithm with an approximation factor of at most 2 and a heuristic nonpreemptive scheduling algorithm with an approximation factor of at most 2-1m , where m is the number of wavelengths. Third, extensive simulations have been conducted, and simulation results show that our proposed algorithms, which consider laser tuning time, achieve significantly better performances as compared to algorithms that are directly derived from existing algorithms without considering laser tuning time. Fourth, since the scheduling in one cycle is related to that in the last cycle, we provide some discussions on the scheduling in multiple cycles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5654614
Pages (from-to)1014-1027
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Dynamic bandwidth allocation
  • laser tuning time
  • multiprocessor scheduling
  • passive optical network (PON)
  • wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)


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