Screen-printed al back contacts on Si solar cells: Issues and some solutions

Vishal Mehta, Bhushan Sopori, Robert Reedy, Bobby To, Helio Moutinho, N. M. Ravindra

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations


This paper identifies some mechanisms that lead to problems in back Al contact formation. Major issues are related to a basic problem that the Al melt has a large surface tension and tries to ball up during the firing step. Other issues arise from dissolution of the Si-Al interface and entrapment of glass within the Si-Al alloy. Si diffusion into Al can be applied to control the melt, while cooling rate can help improve the structure of various regions of the back contact for a favorable series resistance. We also discuss a modified time-temperature profile that can lead to a deep and uniform back-surface field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotovoltaic Materials and Manufacturing Issues II
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2010
Event2009 MRS Fall Meeting - Boston, MA, United States
Duration: Nov 29 2009Dec 3 2009

Publication series

NameMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0272-9172


Other2009 MRS Fall Meeting
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBoston, MA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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