Second Life of Used Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles in the USA

Jay Meegoda, Ghadi Charbel, Daniel Watts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This article focuses on the reuse and recycling of end-of-life (EOL) lithium-ion batteries (LIB) in the USA in the context of the rapidly growing electric vehicle (EV) market. Due to the recent increase in the enactment of both current and pending regulations concerning EV battery recycling, this work focuses on the recycling aspect for lithium-ion batteries rather than emphasizing the reuse of EOL batteries (although these practices have value and utility). A comparative analysis of various recycling methods is presented, including hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, direct recycling, and froth flotation. The efficiency and commercial viability of these individual methods are highlighted. This article also emphasizes the practices and capabilities of leading companies, noting their current superior annual processing capacities. The transportation complexities of lithium-ion batteries are also discussed, noting that they are classified as hazardous materials and that stringent safety standards are needed for their handling. The study underscores the importance of recycling in mitigating environmental risks associated with EOL of LIBs and facilitates comparisons among the diverse recycling processes and capacities among key players in the industry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number97
JournalEnvironments - MDPI
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Environmental Science


  • environmental impact
  • recycling
  • safety standards
  • transportation


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