Selective Structural Derivatization of Flavonoid Acetamides Significantly Impacts Their Bioavailability and Antioxidant Properties

Daniel Kasungi Isika, Omowunmi A. Sadik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Flavonoids show abundant favorable physicochemical and drug related properties, leading to substantial biological applications which are limited by undesirable properties such as poor solubility, high polarity, low bioavailability, and enzymatic degradations. Chemical modification with bioisosteres can be used to address some of these challenges. We report the synthesis and characterization of partial flavonoid acetamide derivatives from quercetin, apigenin and luteolin and the evaluation of their structure-activity relationships based on antioxidant, bioavailability, drug likeness, and toxicity properties. The sequential synthesis was achieved with 76.67–87.23% yield; the structures of the compounds were confirmed using 1H & 13C NMR characterizations. The purity of each compound was determined by HPLC while the molecular weights were determined by mass spectrometry. The % bioavailability was determined using the dialysis tubing procedure and the values were in the range 15.97–38.12%. The antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and expressed as the IC50 values which were in the range 31.52–198.41 µM. The drug likeness and the toxicity properties of compounds 4, 5, 7, 11 and 15 were predicted using computational tools and showed satisfactory results. A structure-activity relationship evaluation reveals that hydroxyl and methylene groups attached on the 2-phenylchromen-4-one structure of the flavonoid play a colossal role in the overall antioxidant and bioavailability properties. The improved bioavailability and excellent drug relevance and toxicity properties present flavonoid acetamide derivatives as prospective drug candidates for further evaluations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8133
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


  • acetamide
  • antioxidant
  • apigenin
  • bioavailability
  • flavonoid
  • luteolin
  • quercetin
  • structure-activity relationship


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