Semi-fragile spatial watermarking based on local binary pattern operators

Zhang Wenyin, Frank Y. Shih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Local binary pattern (LBP) operators, which measure the local contrast within a pixel's neighborhood, have been successfully applied to texture analysis, visual inspection, and image retrieval. In the paper, we present a novel semi-fragile spatial watermarking method based on LBP operators by using the local pixel contrast for the embedding and extraction of watermarks. We also propose a general framework for multi-level image watermarking. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking methods are robust against commonly-used image processing operations, such as additive noise, luminance change, contrast adjustment, color balance, and JPEG compression. At the same time, they achieve good invisibility, fragility, and image tamper detection and localization with less computational cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3904-3912
Number of pages9
JournalOptics Communications
Issue number16-17
StatePublished - Aug 1 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Digital watermarking
  • Local binary pattern
  • Multi-level watermark
  • Semi-fragile watermark


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