Sensor Technologies for Transmission and Distribution Systems: A Review of the Latest Developments

Akhyurna Swain, Elmouatamid Abdellatif, Ahmed Mousa, Philip W.T. Pong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The transmission and distribution systems are essential in facilitating power flow from the source multiple loads over large distances with high magnitudes of voltages and currents. Hence, the monitoring and control of various components of these structures are crucial. Traditionally, this was implemented by sensing only the grid current and grid voltage parameters through coils, clamps, or instrument transformers. However, these have bulky structures that restrict them to the substation and have installation and maintenance issues due to their direct contact with high voltage conductors. Currently, the power grid is undergoing various developments e.g., penetration of renewable energy sources, remote control, and automation, bidirectional power flow, etc. These developments call for compact and energy-efficient sensors to sense multiple grid parameters such as the magnetic field data, temperature, humidity, acoustics, etc., to enable real time, wide area monitoring and the predictive maintenance of the power grid. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advancements in sensing technologies on transmission and distribution systems over a decade and to explain their role in the forthcoming expansion of the power grids. This paper aims to outline the current state-of-affairs of sensor technology as well as to fill research gaps by exploring their limitations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7339
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • big data
  • condition-based grid maintenance
  • pervasive sensing
  • predictive grid maintenance
  • smart sensors
  • wide area monitoring system
  • wireless sensing network (WSN)


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