Sonochemical degradation of perfluorinated chemicals in aqueous film-forming foams

Lucia Rodriguez-Freire, Nerea Abad-Fernández, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Christiane Hoppe-Jones, Hui Peng, John P. Giesy, Shane Snyder, Manish Keswani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are complex mixtures containing 1-5% w/w fluorocarbons (FCs). Here, we have investigated degradation of two commercial AFFF formulations, 3M and Ansul, using sound field at 500 kHz and 1 MHz, with varying initial concentrations ranging from 200 to 930× dilution. The foams were readily degraded by 1 MHz, with percentage of defluorination ranging from 11.1 ± 1.4% (200× dilution of 3M) to 47.1 ± 5.8% (500× dilution of Ansul). Removal of total organic carbon (TOC) ranged from 16.0 ± 1.4% (200× dilution Ansul) to 39.0 ± 7.2% (500× dilution Ansul). Degradation of AFFF was affected by sound frequency with rates of defluorination 10-fold greater when the frequency was 1 MHz than when it was 500 kHz. Mineralization of TOC was 1.5- to 3.0-fold greater under 1 MHz than 500 kHz. Rate of fluoride release was 60% greater for the greatest initial concentration of FC in Ansul compared to the least initial concentration. While the rate of mineralization of AFFF was directly proportional to the initial concentration of Ansul, that was not the case for 3M, where the rates of mineralization were approximately the same for all three initial concentrations. Results of the study demonstrate that sonolysis is a promising technology to effectively treat AFFFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-283
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
StatePublished - Nov 5 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


  • Defluorination
  • Megasonic
  • Perfluorocarbons
  • Sonolysis
  • Ultrasonic


Dive into the research topics of 'Sonochemical degradation of perfluorinated chemicals in aqueous film-forming foams'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this