Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity and the Key Influencing Factors of PM2.5 and PM10 in Heilongjiang, China from 2014 to 2018

Longhui Fu, Qibang Wang, Jianhui Li, Huiran Jin, Zhen Zhen, Qingbin Wei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Particulate matter (PM) degrades air quality and negatively impacts human health. The spatial–temporal heterogeneity of PM (PM2.5 and PM10) concentration in Heilongjiang Province during 2014–2018 and the key impacting factors were investigated based on principal component analysis-based ordinary least square regression (PCA-OLS), PCA-based geographically weighted regression (PCA-GWR), PCA-based temporally weighted regression (PCA-TWR), and PCA-based geographically and temporally weighted regression (PCA-GTWR). Results showed that six principal components represented the temperature, wind speed, air pressure, atmospheric pollution, humidity, and vegetation cover factor, respectively, contributing 87% of original variables. All the local models (PCA-GWR, PCA-TWR, and PCA-GTWR) were superior to the global model (PCA-OLS), and PCA-GTWR has the best performance. PM had greater temporal than spatial heterogeneity due to seasonal periodicity. Air pollutants (i.e., SO2, NO2, and CO) and pressure were promoted whereas temperature, wind speed, and vegetation cover inhibited the PM concentration. The downward trend of annual PM concentration is obvious, especially after 2017, and the hot spot gradually changed from southwestern to southeastern cities. This study laid the foundation for precise local government prevention and control by addressing both excessive effect factors (i.e., meteorological factors, air pollutants, vegetation cover) and spatial-temporal heterogeneity of PM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11627
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


  • GTWR
  • GWR
  • NDVI
  • PCA
  • TWR
  • meteorological factors
  • particulate matter


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