Spectro-polarimetric Properties of Sunquake Sources in X1.5 Flare and Evidence for Electron and Proton Beam Impacts

Alexander G. Kosovichev, Viacheslav M. Sadykov, John T. Stefan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The first significant sunquake event of Solar Cycle 25 was observed during the X1.5 flare of 2022 May 10, by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We perform a detailed spectro-polarimetric analysis of the sunquake photospheric sources, using the Stokes profiles of the Fe i 6173 Å line, reconstructed from the HMI linear and circular polarized filtergrams. The results show fast variations of the continuum emission with rapid growth and slower decay lasting 3-4 minutes, coinciding in time with the hard X-ray impulses observed by the Konus instrument on board the Wind spacecraft. The variations in the line core appeared slightly ahead of the variations in the line wings, showing that the heating started in the higher atmospheric layers and propagated downward. The most significant feature of the line profile variations is the transient emission in the line core in three of the four sources, indicating intense, impulsive heating in the lower chromosphere and photosphere. In addition, the observed variations of the Stokes profiles reflect transient and permanent changes in the magnetic field strength and geometry in the sunquake sources. Comparison with the radiative hydrodynamics models shows that the physical processes in the impulsive flare phase are substantially more complex than those predicted by proton and electron beam flare models currently presented in the literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number160
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number160
StatePublished - Dec 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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