We perform molecular dynamics simulations of model frictionless granular systems undergoing boundary-driven planar shear flow in two spatial dimensions with the goal of developing a more complete understanding of how dense particulate systems respond to applied shear. In particular, we are interested in determining when these systems will possess linear velocity profiles and when they will develop highly localized velocity profiles in response to shear. In previous work on similar systems we showed that nonlinear velocity profiles form when the speed of the shearing boundary exceeds the speed of shear waves in the material. However, we find that nonlinear velocity profiles in these systems are unstable at very long times. The degree of nonlinearity slowly decreases in time; the velocity profiles become linear when the granular temperature and density profiles are uniform across the system at long times. We measure the time tl required for the velocity profiles to become linear and find that tl increases as a power law with the speed of the shearing boundary and increases rapidly as the packing fraction approaches random close packing. We also performed simulations in which differences in the granular temperature across the system were maintained by vertically vibrating one of the boundaries during shear flow. We find that nonlinear velocity profiles form and are stable at long times if the difference in the granular temperature across the system exceeds a threshold value that is comparable to the glass transition temperature in an equilibrium system at the same average density. Finally, the sheared and vibrated systems form stable shear bands, or highly localized velocity profiles, when the applied shear stress is lowered below the yield stress of the static part of the system.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|State||Published - Oct 2005|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics