I. H. Cho, K. S. Cho, S. C. Bong, E. K. Lim, R. S. Kim, S. Choi, Y. H. Kim, Vasyl Yurchyshyn

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21 Scopus citations


We carried out an extensive statistical study of the properties of pores and sunspots, and investigated the relationship among their physical parameters such as size, intensity, magnetic field, and the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity in the umbrae. For this, we classified 9881 samples into three groups of pores, transitional sunspots, and mature sunspots. As a result, (1) we find that the total magnetic flux inside the umbra of pores, transitional sunspots, and mature sunspots increases proportionally to the powers of the area and the power indices in the three groups significantly differ from each other. (2) The umbral area distribution of each group shows a Gaussian distribution and they are clearly separated, displaying three distinct peak values. All of the quantities significantly overlap among the three groups. (3) The umbral intensity shows a rapid decrease with increasing area, and their magnetic field strength shows a rapid increase with decreasing intensity. (4) The LOS velocity in pores is predominantly redshifted and its magnitude decreases with increasing magnetic field strength. The decreasing trend becomes nearly constant with marginal blueshift in the case of mature sunspots. The dispersion of LOS velocities in mature sunspots is significantly suppressed compared to pores. From our results, we conclude that the three groups have different characteristics in their area, intensity, magnetic field, and LOS velocity as well in their relationships.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number49
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 20 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Sun: magnetic fields
  • Sun: photosphere
  • sunspot


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