Sugar-based chemicals can be used as building blocks to produce new monomers, polymers and additives for the commercial plastics and cosmetics industry. As GRAS materials, i.e, "generally recognized as safe", sugar compounds with a unique stereochemistry provide a ubiquitous platform for making cost effective chemicals and polymers. Isosorbide and its isomers as sugar derived dianhydrohexitols can be either incorporated the backbone of new polymers or converted to low molar mass additives for thermoplastics and thermosets or as specialty chemicals. As the cost of petroleum rises, the attractiveness of renewable feedstocks for producing value added products increases. The emergence of sustainable sugar derived chemicals (especially isosorbide modified products) offers attractive prospects with high potential for the next generation chemical industry.