Supremal and Robust Control against Actuator Jamming Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems

Wenli Duo, Shouguang Wang, Meng Chu Zhou, Dan You, Remigiusz Wisniewski, Grzegorz Bazydlo, Aiiad Albeshri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cyber-physical systems, such as unmanned aerial vehicles and connected and autonomous vehicles, are vulnerable to cyber attacks, which can cause significant damage to society. This paper examines the attack issue in cyber-physical systems within the framework of discrete event systems. Specifically, we consider a scenario where a malicious intruder injects a jamming signal into an actuator channel. It disrupts the transmission of control commands and prevents an actuator from receiving them. This is termed an actuator jamming attack. In the paper, we first analyze the closed-loop system behavior under such an attack. An attack structure is constructed to illustrate how an intruder exploits a jamming attack to drive a system into unsafe states. Then, we study the supervisory control problem for a system exposed to such an attack. The problem is reduced to a basic supervisory control one in discrete event systems by introducing the concept of dynamically controllable language. A solution to this problem is explored, where we establish an existence condition for a supremal and robust supervisor that is capable of defending against actuator jamming attacks, and design an algorithm to derive it. Finally, the effectiveness of our method is illustrated by an intelligent automated guided vehicle system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Control and Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence


  • Actuators
  • Behavioral sciences
  • Cyber-physical systems
  • Cyber-physical systems
  • Cyberattack
  • Discrete-event systems
  • Jamming
  • Supervisory control
  • actuator attacks
  • discrete event systems
  • supervisory control


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