The Biology of Bone and Ligament Healing

Jessica A. Cottrell, Jessica Cardenas Turner, Treena Livingston Arinzeh, J. Patrick O'Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


This review describes the normal healing process for bone, ligaments, and tendons, including primary and secondary healing as well as bone-to-bone fusion. It depicts the important mediators and cell types involved in the inflammatory, reparative, and remodeling stages of each healing process. It also describes the main challenges for clinicians when trying to repair bone, ligaments, and tendons with a specific emphasis on Charcot neuropathy, fifth metatarsal fractures, arthrodesis, and tendon sheath and adhesions. Current treatment options and research areas are also reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)739-761
Number of pages23
JournalFoot and Ankle Clinics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


  • Arthrodesis
  • Bone fracture healing
  • Charcot neuropathy
  • Fifth metatarsal fractures
  • Tendon and ligament healing
  • Tissue regeneration
  • Wound healing


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