The cause of photospheric and helioseismic responses to solar flares: High-energy electrons or protons?

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Abstract

Analysis of the hydrodynamic and helioseismic effects in the photosphere during the solar flare of 2002 July 23, observed by MDI/SOHO, and high-energy images from RHESSI show that these effects are closely associated with sources of the hard X-ray emission but that no such effects existed in the centroid region of the flare's gamma-ray emission. These results demonstrate that, contrary to expectations, these hydrodynamic and helioseismic responses ("sunquakes") are more likely to be caused by accelerated electrons than by high-energy protons. A series of multiple impulses of high-energy electrons form a hydrodynamic source that is moving in the photosphere at supersonic speed. This moving source plays a critical role in the formation of the anisotropic wave front of sunquakes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)L65-L68
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume670
Issue number1 PART 2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Keywords

  • Gamma rays
  • Sun: X-rays
  • Sun: flares
  • Sun: oscillations

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