The changes in phoria and convergence to divergence peak velocity ratio are correlated

Eun H. Kim, Tara L. Alvarez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Purpose: Phoria is used in the diagnosis of binocular dysfunctions, such as convergence insufficiency. A common treatment for convergence insufficiency is vision therapy, yet it is controversial whether the phoria changes as a result of rehabilitation. Phoria can vary due to the duration and/or the type of prior visual tasks. The variability potentially observed within phoria measurements leads to difficulties in confidently assessing changes within longitudinal studies. Hence, we propose to measure phoria and vergence peak velocities on separate days to evaluate whether a more robust measurement can be attained. Methods: Eleven subjects with normal binocular vision participated in two identical experimental sessions. Four-degree convergence and divergence steps stimulated from targets at far, middle, and near initial vergence positions were recorded using a limbus tracking system. Near dissociated phoria was measured after a set of step stimuli. The vergence ratio was defined as the convergence peak velocity divided by the divergence peak velocity. Linear regression analyses calculated the correlation between the phoria and the vergence ratio, and the difference between phoria measurements and vergence ratio measurements, recorded on different days. Results: Near dissociated phoria measurements and vergence ratios were highly correlated for all three initial vergence positions (r > 0.85, p < 0.005). The change in phoria was significantly correlated to the change in vergence ratio (r > 0.94, p = 0.0001). The slope of the linear regression analysis between the phoria and the vergence ratio using individual subject data was repeatable between the sessions (r = 0.99, p < 0.00001) despite large changes in phoria observed in a few individuals. Conclusions: The change in phoria is significantly correlated to the change in vergence ratio. For longitudinal studies including the efficacy of vision therapies for patients with binocular dysfunctions, we suggest assessing both phoria and vergence velocities to reduce the variability potentially observed from different days.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1054-1065
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


  • Convergence
  • Divergence
  • Near dissociated phoria
  • Peak velocity
  • Vergence eye movements


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