Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia (SCHZ), and bipolar disorder (BP) have common symptoms and differences, and the underlying neural mechanisms are still unclear. This article will thoroughly discuss the differences between ADHD, BP, and SCHZ (31 healthy control and 31 ADHD; 34 healthy control and 34 BP; 42 healthy control and 42 SCHZ) relative to healthy subjects in combination with three atlases (et al., the Brainnetome atlas, the Dosenbach atlas, the Power atlas) and seven entropies (et al., approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SaEn), permutation entropy (PeEn), fuzzy entropy (FuEn), differential entropy (DiffEn), range entropy (RaEn), and dispersion entropy (DispEn)), as well as the prominent significant brain regions, in the hope of giving information that is more suitable for analyzing different diseases' entropy. First, the reliability (et al., intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) of seven kinds of entropy is calculated and analyzed by using the MSC dataset (10 subjects and 100 sessions in total) and simulation data; then, seven types of entropy and multiscale entropy expanded based on seven kinds of entropy are used to explore the differences and brain regions of ADHD, BP, and SCHZ relative to healthy subjects; and finally, by verifying the classification performance of the seven information entropies on ADHD, BP, and SCHZ, the effectiveness of the seven entropy methods is evaluated through these three methods. The core brain regions that affect the classification are given, and DiffEn performed best on ADHD, SaEn for BP, and RaEn for SCHZ.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology
- different atlases
- resting-state fMRI
- test–retest reliability