The influence of producer–supplier collaboration on new product development (NPD) performance has increasingly become a popular topic in academe and practice. However, our understanding of what leads to collaboration success remains limited. While it is clear that suppliers are becoming an integral part of the design team (Enkel et al. 2009), research regarding performance benefits is fragmented (Johnsen 2009). Many studies find a positive relationship between supplier integration and performance (Lawson et al. 2009) while others show either no relationship or a negative relationship (Koufteros et al. 2005). Further, while external environmental factors may influence internal strategic decisions, it remains unclear how these antecedents influence producer–supplier relationship factors, such as trust and knowledge sharing, which subsequently influence NPD success (Bstieler 2006). A more nuanced understanding of how producer–supplier collaborations impact NPD performance is necessary.