The Initiation and Back-reaction of the X5.4 Flare on 2012 March 7

Nian Liu, Ju Jing, Qiang Hu, Satoshi Inoue, Haimin Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we study the evolution of the X5.4 flare (SOL2012-03-07T00:02) in NOAA Active Region 11429, focusing on its initiation mechanisms and back-reaction effects. To help our study, three-dimensional (3D) coronal magnetic field models are extrapolated from the photospheric magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory under the assumptions of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) and non-force-free field (non-FFF). We investigate the 3D magnetic structure and MHD kink instability, torus instability, and double-arc instability (DAI), and find that this flare is most likely triggered by the tether-cutting reconnection and the subsequent DAI. For the back-reactions of the flare, both NLFFF and non-FFF models clearly show an increase in horizontal magnetic field (B h ) and a decrease in inclination angle (ϕ) of the magnetic field near the polarity inversion line, from the photosphere up to a certain height (5 Mm and 8 Mm for non-FFF and NLFFF, respectively). In addition, the non-FFF model shows an enhancement of the downward Lorentz force acting on the photosphere, and the location of the enhancement spatially coincides with the location of the flare onset. The observed back-reaction is likely a consequence of magnetic reconnection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number64
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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