Errors in pointing to actual and remembered targets presented in three-dimensional (3D) space in a dark room were studied under various conditions of visual feedback. During their movements, subjects either had no vision of their arms or of the target, vision of the target but not of their arms, vision of a light-emitting diode (LED) on their moving index fingertip but not of the target, or vision of an LED on their moving index fingertip and of the target. Errors depended critically upon feedback condition. 3D errors were largest for movements to remembered targets without visual feedback, diminished with vision of the moving fingertip, and diminished further with vision of the target and vision of the finger and the target. Moreover, the different conditions differentially influenced the radial distance, azimuth, and elevation errors, indicating that subjects control motion along all three axes relatively independently. The pattern of errors suggest that the neural systems that mediate processing of actual versus remembered targets may have different capacities for integrating visual and proprioceptive information in order to program spatially directed arm movements.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Three dimensional pointing