We measure the separation velocity of opposite poles from 24 new bipoles on the Sun. We find that the measured velocities range from about 0.2 to 1 km s-1. The fluxes of the bipoles range over more than two orders of magnitude, and the mean field strength and the sizes range over one order of magnitude. The measured separation velocity is not correlated with the flux and the mean field strength of the bipole. The separation velocity predicted by the present theory of magnetic buoyancy is between 7.4 Ba-1/4 cot θ and 13 cot θ km s-1, where θ is the elevation angle of the flux tube at the photosphere (see Figure 9), B is the mean field strength, and a is the radius of the observed bipole. The rising velocity of the top of flux tubes predicted by the theory of magnetic buoyancy is between 3.7 Ba-1/4 and 6.5 km s-1. The predicted separation velocity is about one order of magnitude higher than those measured, or else the flux tubes are almost vertical at the photosphere. There is no correlation between the measured separation velocity and the theoretical value, 7.4 Ba-1/4. The predicted rising velocity is also higher than the vertical velocity near the line of inversion in emerging flux regions observed by other authors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science