Three-dimensional Forward-fit Modeling of the Hard X-Ray and Microwave Emissions of the 2015 June 22 M6.5 Flare

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Abstract

The well-established notion of a "common population" of the accelerated electrons simultaneously producing the hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission during the flare impulsive phase has been challenged by some studies reporting the discrepancies between the HXR-inferred and MW-inferred electron energy spectra. The traditional methods of spectral inversion have some problems that can be mainly attributed to the unrealistic and oversimplified treatment of the flare emission. To properly address this problem, we use a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model extrapolated from an observed photospheric magnetogram as input to the three-dimensional, multiwavelength modeling platform GX Simulator and create a unified electron population model that can simultaneously reproduce the observed HXR and MW observations. We model the end of the impulsive phase of the 2015 June 22 M6.5 flare and constrain the modeled electron spatial and energy parameters using observations made by the highest-resolving instruments currently available in two wavelengths, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager for HXR and the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array for MW. Our results suggest that the HXR-emitting electron population model fits the standard flare model with a broken power-law spectrum ( keV) that simultaneously produces the HXR footpoint emission and the MW high-frequency emission. The model also includes an "HXR-invisible" population of nonthermal electrons that are trapped in a large volume of magnetic field above the HXR-emitting loops, which is observable by its gyrosynchrotron radiation emitting mainly in the MW low-frequency range.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number32
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume852
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Keywords

  • Sun: X-rays, gamma rays
  • Sun: flares
  • Sun: particle emission
  • Sun: radio radiation
  • methods: numerical
  • radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

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