Ti─O─C Bonding at 2D Heterointerfaces of 3D Composites for Fast Sodium Ion Storage at High Mass Loading Level

Diwen Yu, Kaixuan Guo, Fengxiao Hou, Yangang Zhang, Xiaolin Ye, Yaohui Zhang, Puguang Ji, Umedjon Khalilov, Gongkai Wang, Xin Zhang, Kai Wang, Yuexian Song, Xiaobin Zhong, Hongtao Sun, Jian Zhu, Junfei Liang, Hua Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


3D composite electrodes have shown extraordinary promise as high mass loading electrode materials for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). However, they usually show poor rate performance due to the sluggish Na+ kinetics at the heterointerfaces of the composites. Here, a 3D MXene-reduced holey graphene oxide (MXene-RHGO) composite electrode with Ti─O─C bonding at 2D heterointerfaces of MXene and RHGO is developed. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal the built-in electric fields (BIEFs) are enhanced by the formation of bridged interfacial Ti─O─C bonding, that lead to not only faster diffusion of Na+ at the heterointerfaces but also faster adsorption and migration of Na+ on the MXene surfaces. As a result, the 3D composite electrodes show impressive properties for fast Na+ storage. Under high current density of 10 mA cm−2, the 3D MXene-RHGO composite electrodes with high mass loading of 10 mg cm−2 achieve a strikingly high and stable areal capacity of 3 mAh cm−2, which is same as commercial LIBs and greatly exceeds that of most reported SIBs electrode materials. The work shows that rationally designed bonding at the heterointerfaces represents an effective strategy for promoting high mass loading 3D composites electrode materials forward toward practical SIBs applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


  • 2D heterointerfaces
  • 3D composites
  • fast sodium ion storage
  • high mass loading
  • Ti─O─C bonding

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