Toroidal Magnetic Flux Budget in Mean-field Dynamo Model of Solar Cycles 23 and 24

Valery V. Pipin, Alexander G. Kosovichev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We study the toroidal magnetic flux budget of the axisymmetric part of a data-driven 3D mean-field dynamo model of Solar Cycles 23 and 24. The model simulates the global solar dynamo that includes the effects of the formation and evolution of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) emerging on the solar surface. By applying Stokes’s theorem to the dynamo induction equation, we show that the hemispheric magnitude of the net axisymmetric toroidal magnetic field generation rate in the bulk of the convection zone can only partially be estimated from the surface parameters of the differential rotation and the axisymmetric radial magnetic field. The contribution of the radial integral along the equator, which is mostly due to the rotational radial shear at the bottom of the convection zone, has the same magnitude and is nearly in phase with the effect of the surface latitudinal differential rotation. Also, the toroidal field generation rate estimate strongly depends on the latitudinal profile of the surface radial magnetic field near the poles. This profile in our dynamo models significantly deviates from the polar magnetic field distribution observed during the minima of Solar Cycles 22, 23, and 24. The cause of this discrepancy requires further observational and theoretical studies. Comparing the 2D axisymmetric and the 3D nonaxisymmetric dynamo models, we find an increase in the toroidal field generation rate in the 3D model due to the surface effects of BMRs, resulting in an increase in the axisymmetric poloidal magnetic field magnitude.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number25
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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